A toothache can indicate you are experience signs of oral disease that requires immediate treatment, especially when accompanied by an earache, fever or severe oral pain. Take note of anything that increases the pain, such as chewing, drinking hot or cold liquids or touching the area. If you have been taking any medications or suffer from any recent injuries, be sure to report these to your dentist as well. A thorough oral exam by your dentist is the most effective way to identify and treat a toothache.